[ 角聲網上電台 ]
[ 每週理財節目 ]
[ 理財分半鐘 ]
主頁 節目重溫 理財文章 其他文章 精明消費 資源推介 教牧理財 林修榮簡介
搜索
 
理財分半鐘/理財極短篇
提防年金(ANNUITY)產品
號角月報專欄
投資探討
子女大學教育(包括申請大學和經濟援助)
遺產規劃與慈善捐獻
禮物贈與(GIFTING)
稅務專題 - 一般話題
稅務專題﹕與外國人或國外收入有關的稅例
稅務專題﹕與小商業有關的稅例
稅務專題﹕與房地產有關的稅例
稅務專題﹕與退休儲蓄有關的稅例
稅務專題﹕與子女有關的稅例
稅務專題﹕與股票投資有關的稅例
保險指南
夫婦同心理財
僱員股權
地產投資
問題解答
社會安全退休制度
 
電子郵箱﹕
money@cchc.org
novel
「書中短短的真人真事, 串成一幅愛的圖畫, 讓我看到人間依然有情有愛。」(一讀者)本書由中信出版, 不到一年已印第九版,可在 ccmbookroom.org 訂購

 

主頁 > 理財文章 > 遺產規劃與慈善捐獻 > 慈善年金與慈善信託(CRT)  

慈善年金與慈善信託(CRT)

除捐獻現金或實物資產外,還有其他方法,可以達到在同一報稅年度,減少收入稅的目的。

慈善年金(Charitable Gift Annuity)

許多慈善機構,設有慈善年金,這是一個簡單有效的捐獻工具。那是將捐獻金額,放入慈善機構提供的年金,然後由慈善機構保證,在捐獻者有生之時,視其年齡和預期壽數,而定時給付一定的金額。


捐獻者在設立年金當年,即可將部分捐獻金額扣稅;以後由慈善機構收到的收入,只有部分需當作收入報稅;將來捐獻人一旦去世,年金餘下金額歸慈善機構所有。


例如張太太今年七十歲,她將二萬元捐入某慈善機構的慈善年金,當年即獲八千五百五十五元的扣稅額。假定她的稅率是百分之三十一,則為她省了二千六百五十二元的稅金。根據其預期壽數十六年,訂為每年獲得年金之百分之七點七的收入,即一千五百四十元;其中七百一十九元為本金,不用作為收入付稅;其餘八百二十一元,則須作為普通收入付稅。如十六年後她依然健在,將可繼續從年金中每年支取一千五百四十元,不過屆時需全部作為普通收入報稅。當她將來過世後,慈善機構便獲得年金戶口內全部金額,故該年金不歸入張太太的遺產。
這種慈善年金,適合四十歲以上且希望繼續獲得固定收入者。

慈善信託(Charitable Remainder Trust)

從一九六九年開始,慈善信託成為捐獻與遺產規劃的工具:捐獻人首先由律師訂立慈善信託,此信託為不可取消的;然後將某些資產(通常是增值股票或房地產)放入信託,並確立某慈善機構為受益人;與此同時,與受惠機構核定,捐獻人每年由信託支取的金額,該金額可以是信託資產市值的某一百分率,亦可以是超過信託最初市值百分之五以上的固定金額。

慈善信託的好處,是可令捐獻者免付增值稅(Capital Gain Tax),且可在捐獻當年提供資產價值部分的扣稅額,亦為捐獻者一生提供收入(其金額視捐獻者之年齡和預期壽命而定)。待捐獻人去世後,信託內之資產歸慈善機構,資產市值不算捐獻者遺產,故可減少遺產稅。

這種信託適合擁有增值資產但收入不高者、不想出售增值資產者、想將資產捐獻慈善機構者、希望減少遺產稅者、期望獲得扣稅額和收入者。

例如黃太太,今年六十七歲,多年前買入一棟收租物業,當時價格只有十萬元,目前市值為五十萬元;現在每年租金收入扣除費用後,只有市值的百分之三;若將其賣出,便要付八萬元的增值稅。黃太太希望將來將物業作捐獻,但目前仍需要有收入維持生活,於是利用慈善信託,信託指定其過世後將該物業捐獻某慈善機構,亦明訂在其有生之年,每年由信託獲取百分之六的收入,直到去世為止。由於該物業現已歸入慈善信託,不但避免繳納增值稅,而且當年立即得到市值五十萬元之部分金額扣稅的優惠,將來該產業也因不算為黃太太的遺產而全無遺產稅。

另有一種稱為「Charitable Lead Trust」的信託,與慈善信託相似,但只是將收入捐獻慈善機構,待捐獻人去世後,信託內資產歸其他受益人。

遺囑與生前信託,亦是人們常用的遺產規劃工具,亦可將捐獻意願放入堶情A去世後再由後人按指示,將捐獻送到受惠機構。以上只是對一般捐獻工具的簡單介紹,讀者對任何一項有興趣,都應與財務顧問、會計師或律師討論商議。

A Charitable Remainder Trust (CRT) is an irrevocable trust instrument (one that cannot be altered or cancelled once set up) that allows you to transfer ownership of an asset (typically an asset that has appreciated greatly in value but is not earning much of a return) to an IRS-approved charitable organization. In other words, a charitable donation is made. But unlike an usual donation where money or assets are immediately transferred to the charitable organization, assets donated through a CRT does not go to the charitable organization until the donor(s) have passed away. During their life time, the CRT would pay the donor(s) a regular amount of income (the CRT would most likely sell the assets and reinvest it to generate higher income than the asset was previously generating). When the donor(s) pass away, the asset in the CRT goes to the charitable organization and the CRT is finished.

 

There are various tax benefits to the donor(s). First, because a donation (albeit a "delayed " donation) is made, the donor(s) can immediately take a charitable donation. However, the deduction amount is discounted/reduced because the actual value of the donation is reduced by the income stream that would be coming to the donor(s). The IRS has a formula and your accountant will have no problem computing for you the amount of deduction, which will be based on the market value of the donated property, the amount of future income coming back to the donor(s), the age of the donor(s), etc.

 

The second benefit is the avoidance of capital gain as the donor(s) did not sell the donated asset themselves. When the charitable organization sells it, of course it avoids the capital gain tax too because it is a tax-free entity.

 

The third benefit is that the donor(s) would turn a low (or non) income-generating assets into a higher income stream so their income is increased during their life time. (note: such income is taxable). The tax law requires that the percentage of annual payout to the donor cannot be less than 5%. Most trusts pay between 5-7% of the current value of the market value of the asset(s) in the trust.

 

The fourth benefit is that they are able to make a sizable donation that would benefit the charitable organization. Ultimately the assets will go to the charitable organization, albeit on a "delayed" basis.

 

The fifth benefit is if the donor has an estate tax problem (too much assets so the future estate value will be subject to estate taxes), this would be a good way to reduce their estate and avoid estate tax.

 

There is a variation of the CRT, and it is called the Charitable Lead Trust. A CLT is different in that only the periodic income from the CLT goes to the charitable organization. The beneficiary of the asset in the CLT would go to the donor(s)' children instead of to the charitable organization. The initial tax deduction would of course be very different (much lower) from the deduction available from a CRT.